Istio is a hot technology right now. Giants such as Google and IBM have devoted
entire teams of engineers to the project to push it to production readiness.
Since 1.0 has been released recently, I wanted to write down some of the things
that confused me coming from a strictly Kubernetes only world where we have
Ingress controllers and Service load balancers and how Istio takes these same
concepts but on stimulants.
Istio has a few core concepts for getting traffic into your cluster from the
outside world. For this post, you can assume the stack is:
The Istio “Gateway” Type
Istio has a resource type called “Gateway”. The Istio Gateway is what tells the
istio-ingressgateway pods which ports to open up and for which hosts. It does
this by using the label selector pattern coined by Kubernetes. Let’s look at the
httpbin gateway from the Istio
The bolded selector is the interesting piece here. Basically what happens is the
istio-ingresgateway pods are tagged with the label “istio=ingressgateway”. You
can easily find them with kubectl:
$ kubectl get pod -n istio-system -l istio=ingressgateway -o name
So this pod will be the one that receives this gateway configuration and
ultimately expose this port because it matches the Istio Gateway label selector.
Nice! But let’s see it for ourselves.
Istio configures Envoy processes to accept and route traffic. Envoy also comes
with a very simple admin website that you can access as well. Istio configures
Envoy to listen for the admin portion on port 15000, which means we can use
kubectl to access this easily:
So this has opened up a port on our ingress gateway in Istio, but when traffic
hits this gateway, it will have no idea where to send it.
The Istio “VirtualService” Type
Now that our Gateway is ready to receive traffic, we have to inform it where
traffic should go when it does receive it. Istio configures this with a type
called “VirtualService”. By including a list of gateways a virtual service
config should be applied to, Istio then configures those gateways with the
routes defined in the VirtualService configuration. For example, using the
httpbin example again:
The bolded portion is defining which gateways this VirtualService should be
configured on. The http block then defines all of the matches on URI
prefixes that should then be routed to the given destination. When we apply
this, we can use the Envoy admin to see this take affect again. Open up http://localhost:15000/config_dump and
look for the “routes” portion of the printed JSON (it’s pretty large so cmd+f is
your friend here).
Envoy route config after applying the virtual service
So Istio has taken our VirtualService definition and applied it to our gateway
pod that it matched on the name. Success!
With this all setup, we can apply a simple manifest to install the HTTPBin
project in our Kubernetes cluster. There is a sample available
We can also use the handy port-forward command on kubectl to expose our gateway
With this running, open another terminal tab and try curling the project:
$ curl -v localhost/status/200
* Trying ::1...
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to localhost (::1) port 80 (#0)
> GET /status/200 HTTP/1.1
> Host: localhost
> User-Agent: curl/7.54.0
> Accept: */*
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< server: envoy
< date: Fri, 31 Aug 2018 16:25:31 GMT
< content-type: text/html; charset=utf-8
< access-control-allow-origin: *
< access-control-allow-credentials: true
< content-length: 0
< x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 2
* Connection #0 to host localhost left intact
Success! Our httpbin project has been exposed via our Istio Gateway and
VirtualService. Let’s recap.
The Gateway: Istio Gateway’s are responsible for opening ports on relevant
Istio gateway pods and receiving traffic for hosts. That’s it. However, they’re
the critical link between received traffic and routing.
The VirtualService: Istio VirtualService’s are what get “attached” to
Gateways and are responsible defining the routes the gateway should implement.
You can have multiple VirtualServices attached to Gateways. But not for the
I hope this was helpful, understanding how Istio gateways and virtual services
work together greatly increased my confidence in using the project in a
production setting. Kubernetes Ingress controllers are a great abstraction, but
they’re simple. They don’t offer the flexibility Istio has created for ingress